Mushrooms are fungus foods, and they are loved by people because they are delicious and rich in minerals and fiber. But not all mushrooms are edible. Some wild mushrooms are poisonous. If eaten by mistake, it will cause poisoning and life-threatening. Poisonous mushrooms contain plant alkaloids, which are highly toxic and can damage the liver, kidneys, heart and nervous system. Symptoms of poisoning usually appear 1-2 hours after eating. Such as: severe vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain; cramps, drooling; sudden laughter, entering a state of excitement, shaking fingers, and sometimes hallucinations. Therefore, do not eat wild mushrooms casually to avoid poisoning.
4 common types of mushroom poisoning
Different poisonous mushrooms contain different toxins and cause different poisoning manifestations, but they can generally be divided into the following four categories:
1. Gastrointestinal type. This type of patient develops weakness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea 10 minutes to 2 hours after eating mushrooms. The recovery is faster and the prognosis is good. There are many mushrooms that produce such symptoms, such as: Russula, Lactarius, Boletus edulis, Orange-red poisonous umbrella, Poisonous amygdalus, Moonlight fungus, Umbrella spp., Pleurotus ostreatus, etc.
2, neuropsychiatric type, in addition to gastroenteritis-type symptoms 10 minutes to 6 hours after eating, there are still miosis, increased saliva, excitement, hallucinations, staggering gait, etc.
3. Hemolytic type, with an incubation period of 6-12 hours. Patients often develop symptoms such as nausea first, followed by hemolytic jaundice, hepatomegaly, etc. A small number of patients will develop hemoglobinuria, which can be quickly treated with adrenal cortex hormones. L.
4. Liver and kidney damage type, gastroenteritis type manifestations appear 10-30 hours after eating. Some patients may have a period of false recovery, and then show damage to multiple organs such as the liver, brain, heart, and kidneys, but the liver damage is the most serious. Some patients may have mental symptoms. The general course of disease is 2-3 weeks. The fatality rate is high.
5 first aid measures for mushroom poisoning
After about 0.5-0.6 hours of incubation period after eating poisonous mushrooms, symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, severe diarrhea and abdominal pain may appear, which may be accompanied by symptoms such as hyperhidrosis, drooling, tearing, and pulse, and (or) jaundice, anemia, With signs of bleeding tendency, a small number of patients experienced delusion, respiratory arrest, and even died of coma and shock. After poisoning, the following first aid measures should be taken:
1. Call an ambulance for first aid. Immediately dial the emergency number to call an ambulance to rush to the scene, and keep samples of poisonous mushrooms for reference by professionals.
2, induce vomiting, gastric lavage and catharsis. In order to reduce the absorption of toxins, let the poisoned person drink a lot of warm water or dilute salt water, and then put a finger into the pharynx to induce vomiting, which can be repeated many times.
3, replenish water. After inducing vomiting, in order to prevent dehydration from repeated vomiting, it is best to let the poisoned person drink salt water and “sugar salt water” with added sugar to supplement the loss of body fluids and prevent shock.
4. Prevent suffocation. Do not forcibly pour water into the mouth of a patient who has been in a coma to prevent suffocation.