Daily Archives: June 25, 2021

12 kinds of disease signs, the mirror will tell you

   Do not rush to put on clothes after taking a shower. Careful examination of your body will help you to identify early signs of a variety of health hazards. Recently, the British “Daily Mail” invited authoritative medical experts from multiple disciplines to explain the possible signs of disease in various parts of the body.

   1. There is a lump in the groin. If it is not painful and can be pushed, it may be an inguinal hernia, which is formed by a part of the intestine through the inguinal wall. Anton Emaliber, a gastroenterologist at University College London Hospital, said that this kind of lump is generally only found when standing, because gravity and abdominal pressure make it stand out. Inguinal hernia is most common in men. It may be caused by lifting heavy objects. It requires surgery to push the protruding part back to its original position, and the weak spots on the muscle wall during the operation will be reinforced.

  2. Dark spots on the armpit skin. Also known as acanthosis nigricans. Endocrinologist Nida Kamaz believes that this skin pigmentation may be an early sign of type 2 diabetes, usually formed in the folds of the body, such as the armpits, neck and groin. You should check your blood sugar regularly, change your lifestyle, reduce your carbohydrate intake and exercise more.

   3. Asymmetrical body shape. If you look in the mirror with one shoulder higher than the other, or one shoulder blade is more prominent than the other, then there may be scoliosis, which means that the spine has twisted or bent laterally. Strength training and stretching exercises help to improve posture and flexibility, and improve back pain.

  4. Varicose veins in the chest. Varicose veins in the chest may be a sign of an inflammatory disease (breast thrombophlebitis). John Scal, a vascular surgeon at University College London Hospital, explained that this was caused by inflammation of the veins under the skin of the breast or chest wall. This disease does not cause breast cancer, and it can recover on its own or take anti-inflammatory drugs to treat it.

   5. The ankle skin is dark. Darkening of the skin around the ankle bone may be the beginning of leg ulcers. Vascular surgeon Eddie Charona explained that leg ulcers occur when the veins in the legs do not return well and lose the ability to push blood back to the heart. This situation should be paid attention to.

   6. Neck veins are distended. This may be a sign of heart failure. Dr. Green Thomas, an expert at the Bristol Heart Institute, explained that if the heart cannot pump enough blood to circulate in the body without sufficient force, it will affect the veins that carry blood from the head to the heart. It accumulates and causes the veins in the neck to swell. If you feel shortness of breath or swelling of the lower limbs, it may be blood pooling in these areas.

  7. Unknown bruises on the body. If unexplained ecchymosis occurs frequently and takes a week or more to eliminate, this may be a sign of liver disease (such as hepatitis). Professor David Lloyd, an expert in liver surgery at the University Hospital of Leicester, explained that if the liver becomes ill, the number of platelets in the blood will decrease. Decreased platelet count can cause internal bleeding, which can cause bruising. In addition, bruises may also be a sign of leukemia. If the above situation occurs, seek medical treatment in time.

   8. The surface of the knee is abnormal. Meat bumps on the knees may be a sign of gout. This type of arthritis can cause joint swelling and pain. Plastic surgeon Kalash Desai at West Middlesex Hospital explained that these would accumulate under the skin to form small, white (or yellow) bumps called tophi. When gout attacks, taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can help reduce pain and inflammation. Exercise and eating habits can also be used to reduce gout attacks.

  9. Moles that grow suddenly. Most moles are clumps of harmless cells (melanocytes), but sometimes they may be melanoma, which is an aggressive form of skin cancer. Moles are common on the lower legs of women, while men are most common on the back. Dr. John Ashworth, a dermatologist at the Bridgewater Community Health Care Institution, explained that if it is a newly grown mole, especially a mole that appears after the age of 40, it needs to be vigilant. Or the previous mole, whose size, shape, color has changed or bleeds, may also become cancerous.

   10. The thighs are swollen and thick. Christopher Aiden, a urologist at the Royal Surrey County Hospital in the United Kingdom, explained that swelling on one or both sides of the thigh may be a symptom of testicular cancer, and the tumor affects lymphatic drainage. Another sign of testicular cancer is that one testicle is lower than the other, which is caused by the weight of the tumor pulling the testicle downward.

The big-name doctor teaches you to understand the routine blood test sheet

   Blood routine is the simplest and most important routine blood test. Their abnormalities can reflect many health problems.

   1. White blood cells are our combat effectiveness. The human body often encounters the invasion of viruses, bacteria and other pathogens, and white blood cells are the soldiers who defeat them. The number determines the strength of combat power, that is, the strength of resistance to disease (infection). Their lives are short, but the bone marrow will continuously increase troops, replenishing white blood cells into the blood to ensure the body’s combat effectiveness.

  2. Red blood cells are our spirit. It carries oxygen to all parts of the body, making us rosy, powerful and full of energy. Decreased red blood cells make people pale, weak, and listless. A balanced diet is necessary for the body to produce red blood cells, so people who are on a diet or a partial eclipse are prone to lack.

  3. Platelets are our repair technicians. It maintains the integrity of capillaries. When we are injured and bleed, it quickly gathers into the wound, and cooperates with the body’s clotting factors to form a clot to block the wound, reduce blood loss, and promote wound repair and healing. Therefore, people with thrombocytopenia are at risk of bleeding, and those with abnormally increased platelets have an increased risk of blood clots.

7 things to cool off your mind and brain

  The temperature change is the “strong enemy” of the heart and brain. Relevant studies have shown that the death rate of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases will increase significantly under high temperature weather above 35 degrees Celsius. Therefore, in the hot summer, we must also learn to “cool down the heat” for the heart and brain.

  Beijing Tongren Hospital’s cardiology department chief physician and professor Wang Jiyun told the reporter of “Life Times” that from the perspective of clinical experience, July and August each year is a peak of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. On the one hand, in hot weather and high temperature, the body will expand the blood vessels on the body surface in order to dissipate heat. More blood will circulate to the body surface, and the blood supply to the heart and other organs will be relatively less. On the other hand, as the temperature rises, the heart rate and blood flow speed will increase, and the myocardial oxygen consumption will also increase. In order to prevent the sudden onset of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in summer, the following seven things should be paid special attention to.

   Don’t drop your blood sugar too low.

  Research shows that hypoglycemia is one of the main risk factors for the cardiovascular prognosis of diabetes, and it will increase the mortality of patients with myocardial infarction. “The changes in blood sugar in the human body are closely related to the seasons, and hypoglycemia is more likely to occur in summer.” Wang Jiyun said that in summer, there are longer days, less sleep, more activity, increased calorie consumption, and increased blood sugar consumption. At the same time, when the weather is hot, people generally lose appetite, reduce sugar intake, and increase the incidence of hypoglycemia.

   Therefore, people with diabetes must not lower their blood sugar too low in summer, otherwise it will easily induce angina pectoris and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Generally speaking, summer blood sugar is best controlled between 6-8 mmol/L on an empty stomach and 8-10 mmol/L after meals.

   The temperature difference should not be too great.

   Hot weather, many people will stay in air-conditioned rooms with low temperature for a long time. When they go out to a high temperature environment, the sudden change in temperature can easily cause the blood vessels to contract or expand sharply, causing blood circulation disorders, and induce Myocardial infarction or cerebral infarction. Especially in the “sauna days” after falling into the abdomen, because the humidity in the air increases and the oxygen content decreases, people with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are prone to chest tightness, shortness of breath and other symptoms.

   It is recommended that when the weather is sweltering and the air humidity is high, it is best to turn on the air conditioner indoors, but the temperature should not be too low, and the temperature difference with the outside should be 8 degrees Celsius; at the same time, open windows for ventilation in order to adjust. Indoor temperature and humidity.

  Don’t practice too early in the morning.

   It’s early in summer, and many middle-aged and elderly people have the habit of getting up early and doing morning exercises. But in the summer, this may bring fatal risks. Relevant studies have confirmed that 70% to 80% of sudden deaths from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases occur between 4 and 10 in the morning. This period of time is called the “devil’s time” for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in the industry. Wang Jiyun said that the human body is in a state of sympathetic nerves in the early morning, blood pressure rises, heart rate speeds up, and blood viscosity rises, which increases the possibility of disease.

   Therefore, people with a history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases should try to avoid this period of exercise. At the same time, it is necessary to reduce unnecessary going out in hot weather, especially to avoid places with high temperature, high humidity and dense population. When you must go out, wear light-colored, breathable and loose cotton clothes, wear a sun hat or use a parasol.

  Ensure sufficient water.

  ”For people suffering from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, it is necessary to drink moderate amounts of water every day.” Wang Jiyun said, especially in summer, the body’s water will be evaporated in large quantities. If water is not replenished in time at this time, it will lead to blood concentration. Increase, the blood becomes viscous, and it is very easy to sudden cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.

   It is recommended to drink at least 2000~2500ml of water per day, especially before going to bed at night and after getting up in the morning, you should drink a glass of water. If you wake up in the middle of the night, you can also add some water to reduce blood viscosity. It can also prevent thrombosis.

  Don’t look back violently.

  Clinical data show that carotid artery stenosis and plaque have become important causes of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Once the unstable plaque in the carotid artery is “irritated” and falls off, it will cause severe damage to the heart and brain blood vessels, cause myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and may even threaten life. Especially in summer, the human body is prone to insufficient blood volume and high blood viscosity. This risk factor requires more attention.

   Therefore, people with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases are reminded not to “turn their heads” in their lives to avoid accidents. At the same time, avoid actions that require sudden force, such as playing badminton, basketball, and waking up suddenly. People with high blood lipids and unstable blood pressure should pay special attention.

   Atrial fibrillation is quickly cured.

   Normally, the contraction and relaxation of the heart are coordinated, but when atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation) occurs, the atrial contraction function will be greatly reduced, and the blood in the atrium is prone to stagnation and thrombosis. Once the thrombus falls off, it may enter the cerebrovascular with blood and block the vascular stenosis, blocking the blood supply and causing a stroke. Wang Jiyun said that the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation is greater than that of ordinary people, especially in the hot summer weather, the body sweats and water loss is rapid, resulting in thick blood and thrombotic diseases. Therefore, patients with atrial fibrillation should be more concerned in summer.

   It is recommended that patients with atrial fibrillation should evaluate the risk factors of stroke under the guidance of a doctor. If the results show that there is a risk of stroke, whether with or without symptoms, whether paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation, you must insist on taking anticoagulants every day. Stop the medication at will. In addition, there are some non-pharmacological treatments to prevent the complications of atrial fibrillation stroke, such as left atrial appendage occlusion, which are mainly suitable for patients with atrial fibrillation who cannot take long-term or tolerate oral anticoagulants.

  Pay attention to diet.

   Hot weather can cause a person’s appetite to decrease. Therefore, the summer diet should be light. Eating too oily and salty will increase blood lipids and blood pressure, which is not good for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health.

Constipation is like a traffic jam, it’s a good habit to let the stool flow all the way

   Constipation is like a traffic jam, which makes people both painful and anxious. Recently, the website of “Prevention” magazine in the United States recently counted the six good habits developed by people who have a smooth bowel movement.

   Drink plenty of water when traveling. Some people have normal bowel movements at home, and their good habits are disrupted when they go out. The chief gastroenterologist of Princeton University Medical Center, Dr. Anish Shess, explained that when people travel through different time zones, it will affect the circadian rhythm, which will lead to gastrointestinal dysfunction and cause constipation. Drinking a lot of water can help maintain Gastrointestinal exercise.

   Drink less sugary drinks. Gina Sam, a gastroenterologist at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, explained that bad bacteria in the intestines like to feed on sugar, which slows down the speed of intestinal peristalsis. Therefore, drinking sugary drinks can cause swelling of the intestinal wall and eventually constipation. You can add berries to plain boiled water, not only to increase the taste, but also to provide beneficial dietary fiber to the intestines.

  Fixed schedule. Studies have shown that most people who have a smooth bowel movement defecate at the same time every day, usually within the first two hours after waking up or after eating breakfast. Irregular bowel movements can cause chronic constipation. When the stool stays in the colon for too long, it will become dry and hard, making it more difficult to pass.

   Do not exercise too much. Appropriate exercise helps to keep the stool smooth, but if you exercise too much, a lot of blood will flow from the intestine to the muscles, which slows down the movement of the digestive tract. If you are engaged in exercise for more than 1 hour, avoid caffeine or eat high-fat and high-fiber foods during the 4 to 6 hours before exercise.

Small inflammation drags into serious illness, 5 good habits can “diminish inflammation”

   Inflammation of the throat, wound infection, gastrointestinal inflammation… Inflammation is the body’s defensive response to irritation. Normally, inflammation is beneficial. However, many studies at home and abroad have shown that if the body is in a state of “chronic inflammation” for a long time, it may induce a series of serious diseases.

  Chronic inflammation is a disease warning

   “In the development of some major diseases, inflammation is one of the important links.” Wang Yuedan, a professor in the Department of Immunology, Peking University School of Basic Medicine, said that when local tissue cells are damaged, the body’s innate immune cells will It is activated to release inflammatory factors and cause local inflammation. This is beneficial to enhance the body’s ability to resist local pathogens and repair tissue cell damage. However, if inflammation cannot be effectively controlled, it may damage health due to excessive defense. The following diseases are particularly closely related to inflammation.

   is associated with cancer. Wang Yuedan said that long-term inflammation may cause the immune system to dysfunction, impede the ability to recognize and remove tumor cells, and may also provide a microenvironment for the growth of tumor cells and cause tumors. For example, if gastritis caused by local Helicobacter pylori infection persists, it may develop into gastric cancer. Scholars at the Kimmel Cancer Center of Johns Hopkins University in the United States have discovered that chronic inflammation may also be associated with the occurrence of prostate cancer, lung cancer, and esophageal cancer.

   damages the cardiovascular system. Inflammation caused by immune disorders often invades the inside of the blood vessel wall, causing damage to the blood vessel wall and forming plaque in the blood vessel. Blood clots may even form, leading to the onset of diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

   causes diabetes. Wu Xueyan, a professor at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, said that weight gain and obesity are mostly manifested by increased blood lipids and blood sugar. Once the fat cells increase, more inflammatory factors will be secreted, making the immune system abnormally active, leading to abnormal lipid metabolism, thereby increasing the risk of diabetes.

   causes depression. Andrew Miller, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Emory University School of Medicine, said that inflammation is one of the possible causes of depression. Miller’s study found that a slight increase in chronic inflammation can lead to an increased risk of depression.

   Alzheimer’s disease. The inflammatory reaction process may also cause damage to the nervous system cells. Wang Yuedan said that with the increase of age, the regulation mechanism of the immune system may become disordered, which increases the probability of Alzheimer’s disease.

  Bad habits cause inflammation of the upper body

  Chronic inflammation has a long course, which can last from several months to several years. It is prolonged from acute inflammation, and some are caused by the continuous stimulation of inflammatory factors. The human body may be difficult to detect at first, and it is not discovered until the symptoms worsen a few years later. Experts say that chronic inflammation is inseparable from bad lifestyle habits.

   bad eating habits. Part of chronic inflammation is caused by bacterial or viral infection, that is, bacterial inflammation. For example, if you do not pay attention to the hygiene of the tableware when you eat and drink outside, you will be infected with Helicobacter pylori, cause gastritis, and increase the risk of gastric cancer.

  High-calorie food. Wu Xueyan explained that atherosclerotic plaques are related to excessive intake of sweets and fried foods, which will lead to increased blood lipids, promote the local release of inflammatory factors in cells, and cause vascular endothelial damage.

   Depressed mood. Wu Xueyan said that depressed mood and excessive stress can cause excessive secretion of adrenaline and adrenal glucocorticoids, increase the secretion of cytokines, and lead to chronic inflammation.

   sits still for a long time. Wang Yuedan emphasized that sitting for a long time will not only cause disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, it may also impede vascular circulation, especially in the lower extremities, local microthrombosis and local vascular inflammation, leading to lower extremity vascular inflammation diseases.

   smoking and drinking. Wang Yuedan mentioned that drinking alcohol causes great damage to liver cells, which reduces the immune molecules produced by the liver and reduces the function of the immune system. Smoking can cause inflammation of the airways and lungs, and may even cause lung cancer.

   often stay up late. Wu Xueyan said that staying up late increases the body’s production of toxic and harmful substances, and the immune system has a corresponding increase in the burden of clearing them. Wang Yuedan added that once the circadian rhythm is broken, the internal regulation rhythm of the immune system will also change, which in turn induces inflammation.

   Improper medication. Excessive use of some drugs will kill some normal cells, cause local flora imbalance and cause inflammation.

   Anti-inflammatory should start from usual

   “drive away” chronic inflammation, experts believe that a healthy lifestyle is needed.

   is nutritious. Dr. Andrew Weir, a professor of medicine at the University of Arizona in the United States, has a famous “anti-inflammatory food pyramid” theory. He pointed out that fruits and vegetables have the best anti-inflammatory effects. At least 4 to 5 servings of vegetables are consumed every day, each serving about 80 grams. Coarse grains, pasta, and beans should be eaten daily; healthy fats such as organic rapeseed oil and nuts should be taken daily. 5-7 servings; 2-6 servings of fish and seafood per week (1 serving is about 113 grams). In addition, mushrooms, eggs, yogurt, ginger, garlic, tea, etc. all have anti-inflammatory effects. Wang Yuedan emphasized the need to reduce the consumption of instant noodles, biscuits, takeaways and other fast foods, while staying away from tobacco and alcohol.

   Drink plenty of water. Drinking plenty of water can strengthen blood circulation, promote the inactivation of inflammatory factors, reduce inflammation, and maintain the stability of the immune system. The amount of water you drink per day depends on your personal situation. It is recommended that you drink about 2000 ml of water per day.

   Exercise regularly. The body’s oxygen intake increases and the breathing rate increases, which can strengthen immunity and prevent the “arbitrary rampage” of inflammatory factors. Wang Yuedan suggested that aerobic exercise should be performed two to three times a week for half an hour each time. Walking, jogging, swimming, climbing, etc. are all good choices.

Snoring accompanied by these symptoms is the body reminds you to go to the hospital

   Snoring is not necessarily a disease. People may also appear when they are tired or drunk. However, if the following conditions are accompanied, it is a danger signal from the body and should cause enough Attention.

   1. Even though I slept all night, I still feel very tired when I wake up.

  2. Repeated apnea at night, even waking up.

  3. Dry mouth and headache after getting up in the morning.

  4. Always sleepy or nap during the day, it is easy to fall asleep when in a meeting or in a car.

   5. Being irritable, blood pressure rises when waking up.

  6. Concentration is difficult, and memory is reduced.

   Parents should be careful if they find that their children start snoring, open their mouths to breathe, have trouble concentrating in class, lethargy, or have poor academic performance, and take their children to the otolaryngology department for examination if necessary.

  In terms of treatment, the first step is to change the behavior pattern, such as sleeping on the side, quitting smoking and drinking alcohol, healthy weight loss, preventing colds, and avoiding sedative drugs. At present, there is no clinical medicine to treat snoring, and there are usually the following three methods:

   Surgery. This is for patients with nasal or throat diseases that cause sleep apnea symptoms. Enlarge the nasal and pharyngeal cavity, such as surgery to remove nasal polyps or correct deviated nasal septum, tonsillectomy, soft palate plasty, chin advancement, etc. . Snoring in children is mainly caused by adenoid hypertrophy and/or tonsil hypertrophy behind the nasal cavity, and the effect after surgical resection is very good.

Loss of eyesight actually affects mood

   The latest research from University College London found that even a slight decrease in vision may increase the risk of depression and loneliness, make people feel bad, and reduce overall health.

   The college analyzed the relevant health data of 112,000 participants aged 40 to 74. These data include the participants’ eye health and mood changes. Many participants suffer from vision problems such as cataracts, glaucoma or macular degeneration. The results of the analysis showed that compared with people with healthy eyes, the proportion of participants with mild vision problems who reported poor health was 12% higher. Of these people with poor eyesight, 14% are receiving treatment for depression, anxiety, and other mental health problems.

Many people’s sneezing posture ruins their health

   Runny nose and sneezing are the protective responses of the human body after illness. Whether these actions are done correctly will also affect health. The following common life details need attention.

   1. Sneezing does not cover your mouth, it is highly contagious. Everyone sneezes, but few people notice the spread of germs caused by sneezing. According to research, when a person sneezes, droplets sprayed from the lungs undergo a complicated process of rupture, and then sprayed out from the mouth and splashed into the air. Droplets caused by sneezing will spread all over the room in just a few seconds, and even reach the ceiling.

   A recent study by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States found that patients with bacterial or viral colds can often carry a large number of germs when they breathe out. When they sneez, the tiny droplets that are ejected are more infectious than usual 5~200 times higher. A sneeze can contain 300,000 germs, and these viruses are more likely to be transmitted to others under poor ventilation. Therefore, you must not sneeze at others after you are sick. It is best to cover your mouth and nose with a handkerchief or clean toilet paper.

Authoritative gynecologist, talk about cervical cancer vaccines

   After a long wait of 10 years, on July 18, the State Food and Drug Administration announced that the human papillomavirus vaccine (type 16 and type 18) has been approved for marketing, becoming the first domestic product Approved cervical cancer vaccine. In addition to happiness, various questions also followed. To this end, this newspaper interviewed Wei Lihui, vice chairman of the Chinese Medical Association of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and honorary director of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University, and Shen Lifei, deputy chief physician of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  ”Life Times”: What is HPV, and how closely is it related to cervical cancer?

  Shen Lifei: HPV is short for human papilloma virus. HPV can be divided into two categories: carcinogenic (high-risk type) and non-carcinogenic (low-risk type). HPV can increase the risk of condyloma acuminata, oral cancer and cervical cancer. HPV-16 has the highest carcinogenicity, about 55%~60% of cervical cancers are related to it. The carcinogenicity of HPV-18 ranks second and is related to 10% to 15% of cervical cancers. However, being infected with HPV does not necessarily mean that you will get cervical cancer. Only a small percentage of women infected with high-risk HPV will eventually develop cervical cancer. However, if HPV continues to be infected for more than 1 to 2 years, regardless of age, it means that the risk of subsequent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical cancer is significantly increased.

  ”Life Times”: How is HPV transmitted?

  Shen Lifei: HPV is mainly infected through sexual contact. If the mouth or genitals touch the infected part of an infected person, it is very likely that they will also be infected. People with more sexual partners are at higher risk of infection. Condoms cannot completely prevent HPV infection, because they cannot cover all genital areas. However, contact with regular daily necessities is not contagious, such as using toilets.

  Life Times: What age group is better to inject? Is HPV infection effective?

  Wei Lihui: HPV is mostly infected through sex, so it is best to inject the HPV vaccine before sex occurs. However, the injection standard of HPV vaccine is not whether there is sex or not, but whether it is infected with HPV virus. As in most countries, the approved “bivalent” HPV vaccine is registered in mainland China for vaccination of 9 to 25-year-old women. People who do not have HPV infection have the best injection effect. For older people, the effect will be weakened because of the slow immune response. Studies have shown that if you have been infected with HPV before, as long as you are not infected now, the vaccine will have a 60% effect. But if you are in a state of HPV infection, vaccination is meaningless.

  ”Life Times”: Is the effect of the “bivalent” vaccine approved this time really inferior to the “four-valent” and “nine-valent”?

  Wei Lihui: There is no difference in effectiveness of these vaccines, mainly referring to the difference in coverage types. The “bivalent” vaccines approved in China this time mainly target HPV-16 and 18. Among all HPV viruses that cause cervical cancer, they account for about 70%; the “quaternary” vaccines cover HPV-16 and 18 , HPV-6, 11 can also be covered, HPV-6, 11 can mainly cause genital warts; and the “nine-valent” vaccine can cover nine HPV viruses (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58), which can prevent 90% of HPV viruses that cause cervical cancer. According to the latest research in the United States, the “bivalent” vaccine is not only effective against HPV-16 and 18, but also reduces the chance of infection with other related types of HPV viruses.

  ”Life Times”: Is it possible to inject HPV vaccine during pregnancy and menstruation?

  Wei Lihui: HPV vaccine is not recommended during pregnancy. Although there is no clear case of fetal malformations caused by HPV injection during pregnancy, from the perspective of human protection, the World Health Organization (WHO) clearly stipulates that vaccines cannot be injected during pregnancy. Because injection of HPV vaccine during menstruation may cause injection reactions, it is best for women to choose to inject HPV vaccine during non-menstrual periods.

  ”Life Times”: Will there be side effects from HPV vaccine injection? What are the precautions after injection?

  Wei Lihui: Like other general vaccines, there may be some minor reactions after HPV vaccine injection, such as local redness and swelling, pain, general discomfort, etc., and occasional fainting, but this situation is very Rare. In order to avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions, foreign countries stipulate that after vaccination, observe for half an hour before leaving hospital. After vaccination with HPV vaccine, there are no special matters needing attention.

  ”Life Times”: We learned that Australian government men can get HPV vaccine free of charge. What are the benefits of male vaccination?

  Wei Lihui: Except for cervical cancer, HPV-16 and 18 are closely related to tumors in many other sites. They also increase the risk of vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, and breast cancer. Anal cancer, oropharyngeal cancer and penile cancer may also be related to HPV infection. So for men, HPV vaccination is also beneficial.

  ”Life Times”: How many times should I get the HPV vaccine?

  Wei Lihui: In terms of the development and design of HPV-16 and 18 vaccines, 3 injections have the best effect. The injection times are 0 months, 1 month and 6 months later. According to the results of the study, one or two injections have a certain effect, but it is not as good as three injections.

  ”Life Times”: Is the HPV vaccine effective for Chinese people?

  Wei Lihui: The HPV vaccine approved this time is based on Chinese clinical data, not based on foreign data. It is precisely because of long-term clinical observations and data analysis that HPV vaccines will arrive in China ten years later. Therefore, the HPV vaccine approved this time is effective and safe for Chinese people.

Urine color helps you see health problems

   Normal urine is a clear light yellow liquid. When you notice a sudden change, it may be an early warning of the disease. In daily life, we recommend that you always observe your urine carefully and perform a urine test as soon as possible if you find any problems.

   1. Like “strong tea”. If your urine is dark yellow or brownish-yellow like strong tea, it is likely that there is a problem with the liver and gallbladder. Bile (bilirubin) is usually excreted in two ways, one is excreted from the intestine and the other is excreted from the urine. When the liver or gallbladder is diseased, the path of bile to the intestines is cut off, and it can only be excreted in the urine to form bilirubinuria. Common diseases include: hepatocellular jaundice, cholestatic jaundice.

  2. Like “clouds and mists”. Urine is yellowish-white, turbid like a cloud, and sometimes even flocs can be seen. It is likely that there is a serious infection of the urinary system. During infection, a large number of pus cells and bacteria are mixed in the urine to form pyuria. Common diseases include: acute pyelonephritis, gonorrhea, etc.