01 Is the second-hand smoke? Studies tell you the farther the better it is!
Throughout the world, smoking has always been one of the main reasons for a variety of serious diseases. In addition to smoking, the bystanders are also forced to suck “second-hand smoke” in the car, home, indoor, public place, without smoking protection area. A number of studies have proven to have a direct impact of smoking on diseases. The current research on “Impact of suction two hand smoke on human health” is relatively small.
It is important to determine the impact of unconsciting tobacco fog exposure to health. Recently, “Environmental Health Perspectives” issued a study on exposure to second-hand smoke on cardinal electricity activity, indicating that continuing in indoor exposure to second-hand tobacco fumes will trigger changes in cardiac electricity, called heart alternating It can lead to sudden arrhythmia and sudden death.
The study was completed by the University of Davis, California, Ltd., has completed its cooperation with Professor and Health and Environment Center of Pharmacology. They specifically designed a room for testing related to inhaled toxins, exposing mice into second-hand smoke. Smoke levels are set to be similar to the public area where smokers are located. On Friday, 6 hours a day, after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, the use of high-speed imaging and electrocardiogram test animals have changed. They also tested the level of calcium, and the cardiac contraction of calcium regulated, and the results were compared to the heart of mice exposed to filter air.
The researchers found that the heart of the mouse exposed to filter air was normal, but the heart of mice exposed to second-hand smoke could not endure the rapid heart rate, especially when exposed 12 weeks, while the calcium level in the heart did not have enough Fast reactions, causing unstable heartbeat, or heart alternating. These can lead to malignant arrhythmia or sudden death.
Do you know how terrible cigarette! So, please farther away from it! !
02 Important Discovery: Future will be predictable
IPF [The risk of occurrence of haired pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common type of pulmonary fibrosis, and the pulmonary scar becomes more serious over time. , Deep inhalation becomes difficult, and oxygen is gradually deteriorated. The average survival time of IPF patients is 3 to 5 years, and the treatment choice is very limited. The key is that the patient cannot be accurately identified before the imperferable lesion of the lungs.
Recently, a study published in “Nature Communications” indicates that the mucin MUC5B-induced mucin accumulation is associated between the progress of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and reports that MUC5B mutations can prevent small airways. Mucus removal and induced scar formation, which indicates a strong IPF risk factor. This study was completed by scientists from the University Medical College of the Colorado. The mucus dysfunction is considered to be characterized by blockage (such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and hereditary diseases (such as primary ciliary disorders and cystic fibrosis), but currently The importance of mucus and mucus fiber interactions has gradually appeared in the peripheral diseases, such as adenocarcinoma and IPF. The MUC5B gene produces a protein member of a viscous family, which is a key component formed by imparting the mucous gel salt. Like other genes, MUC5B protein expression is controlled by promoter, a particular genetic feature, called MUC5B promoter variant RS 35705950, which can cause a significant increase in pulmonary mucus. This functional disorder causes mucus accumulation in the small airway, which prevents appropriate lung (cilia) from removal, while cilia is the main and congenital defense mechanism for pathogens. The study has proved hypercarcies with MUC5B genes to be the strongest risk factors of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in metric lung disease. Researchers continue to recommend that targeting MUC5B in small (remote) airways may be an effective method for preventing pulmonary fibrosis.
03 An antibiotic uses multiple antibiotics, which is more likely to cause drug resistance?
Reproducing a antibiotic can cause drug resistance? you are wrong!
Due to excessive prescriptions and excessive use, antibiotic drug resistance has risen to a high risk level in recent years. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) report, many infected treatment becomes more and more difficult because the antibiotics become less effective.
Reducing antibiotic abuse is critical to solving antibiotic resistance problems, and we need to understand whether different antibiotic use intensity will have the same effect on drug resistance.
Recently, a large study showing the “Elife” magazine, the relationship between “distribution of antibiotics and the relationship between antibiotic resistance” shows that it is used for repeated use of a few people. The increase in the drug resistance of American antibiotics seems to be more closely related to the relationship between antibiotics in many people.
The study was completed by the Harvard University Public Health School, which is the first to fully understand the relationship between antibiotic use distribution and antibiotic resistance. The researchers used 2 National Pharmacies, Truven Health Marketscan Research and Medicare, and analyzed the data of 2011-2014, and the data of the total number of antibiotic resistance of antibiotic resistance in 2012 to 2015 Contrast. In order to determine if a drug is used directly related to antibiotic resistance, the researchers analyzed 72 antibiotics and bacteria.
The final study shows that in 2011, 34% of people accepted antibiotic treatment. In addition, the crowd of 57% of the antibiotic usage in the entire study crowd only accounts for only 10%, and this distribution is basically similar in each year. With regard to drug resistance, the results show that specific antibiotics are used more frequently related to greater drug resistance. On the other hand, when classified by “many people’s low intensity use” and “high-intensity use” of many people, the researchers have found that many people occasionally use low-intensity drugs and drug resistance. It is more closely related. These results can undoubtedly provide certain guiding significance for the development of antibiotic management policies.
04 Smart bacteria is like a head of a businessman, see how it is self-swelling!
Copper Green Pseudomonas is the most common and most dangerous pathogen in the hospital.First, it can lead to severe infections such as severe pneumonia or meningitis. In the first phase of infection, the pathogen needs effectively attached to the host tissue while spreading to the distance. In the later stage of infection, pathogens need to be re-adjusted to permanent accommodation host and hide their immune system.
Recently, the study published in the “Cell Host & Microbe” strategy analysis of copper green pseudocensis strategies, how the germ of this bacteria has been continuously organized in a few seconds and continuously. The intelligence of bacteria is in the same way as the business model: settlement – growth – expansion. This study was completed by researchers at the University of Basel.
“Spread → Adhesion”
The key to the success of copper green pseudomonas is its perfect planting strategy. In the initial stage of infection, bacteria actively move towards the historical surface of the host by rotating cell propeller (flagella). When the flagepan is encountered, the bacteria quickly respond quickly to a viscous protrusion, and the bacteria is firmly fixed to the tissue. In a few seconds, the bacteria will change their procedures to adhere to the surface.
“Adhesion → Dissemination”
The researchers have confirmed that in the split, the surface adhering bacteria can produce two different processes: a seed of the cells remain The “High Cyclic-Di-GMP” “of the underlying host tissue can be destroyed, and the other is” Low Cyclic-Di-GMP “that is spread to the far portion. This process is also called asymmetric cell division. Therefore, copper green pseudomonas utilizes a classic business model: first establish settlement, then grow, and finally expand far away.
“Smart Decision: Communication → Conquest and Hidden”
However, the chance window of copper green pseudomonas is limited. After several asymmetrical splits, the bacteria returns to symmetrical split, producing only the descendants of the adhesion of the surface, thereby increasing the number of local populations in an index manner. The pathogen changes its strategy, the goal is to establish and escape the host defense system in the host.
1.wang Z,WANG L, TAPA S, ET Al. Exposure to secondhand smoke and arrhythmogenic cardiac alternans in a mouse model [J]. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2018, 126 (12): 127001.
2.Hancock la, Hennessy CE, Solomon GM, et al. Muc5b Overexpression Causes Mucociliary Dysfunction and Enhances Lung Fibrosis in mice [J]. Nature Communications, 2018, 9 (1): 5363.