The warning phrase “Smoking is harmful to health” is well-known and familiar. I believe many people can talk about the dangers of smoking. But how many people know that “thromboangiitis obliterans” is also related to smoking? Today, let Tang Jingdong from the Department of Vascular Surgery, Pudong Hospital of Fudan University, do the popularization of “thromboangiitis obliterans”.
What is thromboangiitis obliterans?
Thromboangiitis obliterans, also known as Buerger’s disease, commonly known as “vasculitis”, is an inflammatory, segmental, and recurring occlusive disease of blood vessels. Most of the disease affects the middle and small arteries of the limbs. It is more common in the lower extremities. It is currently believed that it is caused by occlusion of arteriole spasm and thrombosis, resulting in ischemia. Occurs mostly in men, mostly in young adults.
Vasculitis is closely related to smoking
Tang Jingdong, Department of Vascular Surgery, Pudong Hospital, Fudan University, said that smoking is closely related to the occurrence, course and prognosis of this disease. According to statistics, smokers account for 60%-95% of patients with thromboangiitis obliterans. Clinical observations have found that smoking cessation can relieve the condition of patients with thromboangiitis obliterans, and smoking again can make the condition worse, which may be related to the vasoconstriction caused by nicotine.
In addition to smoking, vasculitis is also related to the following factors:
(1) Infection and malnutrition: It is often observed that many patients with vasculitis have a history of repeated fungal infections in the clinic. The human body’s immune response to mold can induce increased blood fibrinogen and hypercoagulable state, which may be related to the onset of thromboangiitis obliterans.
(2) Cold, damp, trauma: Patients with vasculitis often have a history of cold or damp before the onset, and some patients have a history of trauma. These factors may cause vasospasm and vascular endothelial damage, and lead to vascular inflammation and thrombotic occlusion.
(3) Hormone disorders: The vast majority of patients with vasculitis are men, and they develop onset in young adults. Some scholars believe that prostate dysfunction or excessive loss of prostatic fluid can reduce the prostaglandins in the body that have the effect of expanding blood vessels and inhibiting platelet aggregation, and may cause peripheral vasomotor dysfunction and thrombosis to cause this disease.
(4) Vascular nerve regulation disorder: The autonomic nervous system’s regulation of endogenous or exogenous stimuli is disordered, which can make blood vessels easily in a state of spasm. Long-term vasospasm can damage and thicken the vessel wall, which can easily form thrombus and cause vascular occlusion.
(5) Autoimmune dysfunction: Studies have shown that patients with vasculitis have special nuclear humoral immunity against human antigens. Various immunoglobulins and C3 complexes are found in the blood vessels of the patients, and there is anti-artery in the patient’s serum Antibodies are present. In addition, some scholars have found that smoking and other factors can change the antigenicity of blood vessels and produce autoanti-arterial antibodies. These antibodies “we are not the enemy” and “attack” normal blood vessels, leading to vascular inflammation and thrombosis.
What are the symptoms of vasculitis?
The onset of thromboangiitis obliterans is very insidious, and the condition gradually worsens after a long period of time, showing periodic attacks.
(1) Pain: Early patients (toes, fingers) have abnormal feelings of pain. As the course of the disease progresses, the symptoms gradually aggravate, and patients often sit with their knees folded.
(2) Chills: The skin temperature decreases in the early stage, and the affected limbs get cold and are afraid of cold. With the development of the disease, the degree of coldness increases.
(3) Skin color change: The peripheral skin color is pale due to ischemia.
(4) Weakened or disappeared limb arterial pulsation: The patient’s limb arterial pulsation may gradually weaken and eventually disappear completely.
(5) Limb dystrophy, ulcers, gangrene: In severe cases, the extremities lose the blood supply of the arteries, leading to ischemia and hypoxia, and even forced amputation.
How to prevent vasculitis?
1. Strictly ban smoking and stick to it.
2. Keep warm, prevent cold and damp, avoid trauma, and prevent limb vasospasm.
3. Change your position from time to time during work to prevent the blood vessels of the limbs from being compressed for a long time and affecting blood circulation.
4. Patients with thromboangiitis obliterans need to take care of the lower limbs and the wounds and abrasions that occur to prevent serious infections.
How should vasculitis be treated?
1. Smoking cessation: Smoking cessation is the basis of vasculitis treatment, and it is cost-effective and profitable. It is highly recommended.
2. Drug therapy: Commonly used therapeutic drugs include: vasodilators, antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, and thrombolytic drugs, etc., whose purpose is to improve the microcirculation of the limbs and relieve the ischemic symptoms caused by arterial occlusion. For those with local and systemic infections, appropriate antibiotics should be used for treatment. For those who have developed ulcers and gangrene, dressing changes and aseptic bandages should be performed regularly.
3. Surgical treatment: The commonly used operations in the past include: vascular bypass (vascular bypass, lumbar sympathetic ganglionectomy, etc.). Traditional surgery has disadvantages such as large trauma and inaccurate curative effect. In recent years, with the continuous deepening of the concept of minimally invasive, a series of minimally invasive interventional procedures such as transcatheter thrombolysis, balloon dilatation, and intracavitary radiofrequency ablation have continued development of. Compared with the traditional surgery in the past, interventional surgery has the advantages of less trauma, faster recovery, and repeatability. It has been recognized by more and more doctors and patients.
When you are going down the stairs or participating in a relay race to speed up the run, the unpredictable leg cramps are quite annoying. Hearing of leg cramps, people around you often kindly remind: This is a manifestation of calcium deficiency, and calcium should be supplemented.
Is this really the case?
The cause of leg cramps is more than calcium deficiency
Leg cramp is the involuntary long-term contraction of leg muscles, which is medically called “gastrocnemius spasm.” “Its main characteristics are that the muscles are easily excited, the contraction is not controlled, and it lasts for a long time. It often causes pain and makes people very uncomfortable.” Zang Chuanyi, deputy chief physician of the Department of Orthopedics at Beijing Geriatric Hospital, said in an interview with a reporter from the Science and Technology Daily.
“The common people think that leg cramps are caused by calcium deficiency. But this is only one of the reasons, not all.” Zang Chuanyi said that leg cramps are caused by complex factors, and many issues need to be considered, such as: nerves that control muscles. What is the status? What is the quality of the muscle itself? What is the internal and external environment of the muscles?
Leg cramps may be related to abnormalities in the central or peripheral nerves that control muscles. If there is a problem in the brain, it may cause the muscles to receive abnormal commands, which may cause abnormal contractions of a certain group of muscles, such as Parkinson’s disease. If there is a problem with the peripheral nerves, such as a herniated disc, it may also cause abnormal contraction of the corresponding muscles and leg cramps.
Problems with the leg muscles themselves may also induce leg cramps. For example, muscle inflammation or disease, muscle ischemia, arteriosclerosis occlusion of the lower limbs (the elderly should be especially vigilant). Zang Chuanyi said: “Cramps may occur in the muscles of the body, but cramps in the calves are more common. This is because the muscles of the back of the calf are used frequently and require a lot of blood. However, due to its anatomical characteristics, the legs supply blood. Often relatively inadequate and prone to cramps.”
In addition, the internal environment of the leg muscles also affects the muscle state. For example, when the body is in a state of low calcium, high phosphorus, low potassium, and high lactic acid, it is also easy to cause leg cramps.
”External environment such as cold stimulation, strenuous exercise, excessive fatigue, leg compression, etc. may also cause leg cramps.” Zang Chuanyi said that in a word, problems in each of the above links may cause leg cramps.
Some diseases can also cause a decrease in blood calcium concentration
So, what is the relationship between cramps and calcium?
“Low blood calcium concentration can easily lead to increased muscle excitability, and muscle cramps can occur with slight stimulation.” Zang Chuanyi explained.
Despite this, if you have cramps, you cannot blindly supplement calcium. One is because, as mentioned above, cramps are not necessarily caused by calcium deficiency; the other is because, even if cramps are related to calcium deficiency, we must first figure out whether it is insufficient calcium intake or excessive loss.
Zang Chuanyi told reporters that from an internal point of view, calcium deficiency may be due to insufficient intake or malabsorption, or excessive calcium loss. Pregnant women and adolescents often show physiological calcium deficiency because they have high calcium requirements. Normal diets cannot meet their calcium needs and must be supplemented with calcium. Postmenopausal women and the elderly have reduced calcium absorption capacity, resulting in blood calcium or Insufficient bone calcium.
In addition, some diseases may directly or indirectly cause a decrease in blood calcium concentration, such as hyperthyroidism, uremia, chronic gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes, water-electrolyte acid-base balance disorders, and so on. “It is worth noting that the effects of some drugs can also cause calcium deficiency. For example, glucocorticoids, cinitidine, statins, etc. can cause calcium deficiency.” Zang Chuanyi said.
”It can be seen that cramps are not only caused by insufficient calcium intake, but also because of some diseases in the body that cause excessive calcium loss and low blood calcium.” Zang Chuanyi said that there is no problem with regular calcium supplementation, but Can not blindly supplement calcium. He suggested that if you want to know if there is a lack of calcium, you should go to the hospital for an examination.
The key is to do targeted prevention
How to relieve and prevent leg cramps?
”Muscle stretching is very important.” Zang Chuanyi reminded that when stretching, muscles should be stretched in the opposite direction to muscle contraction, and muscle contraction should be prevented by confrontation.
Hot compress and massage can also help relieve leg cramps. By pressing the contracted muscles, the accumulated lactic acid will be discharged, and the blood supply of the muscles will increase after relaxation, so that the muscles can be soothed and relaxed.
” The most important thing is to do a targeted prevention. First, check whether you have a primary disease. If leg cramps are caused by arteriosclerosis occlusion of the lower extremities, it is often necessary to treat the blood vessels of the lower extremities. I did not take some drugs that could easily cause calcium loss or affect calcium absorption. Vitamin D3 is often required for calcium supplementation.” Zang Chuanyi said.
Experts suggest that you should spend more time in the sun, drink more milk, eat more eggs, lean meat, cabbage, seafood and other foods with high calcium content. “People with high uric acid should not eat more seafood, which can easily cause gout.” Zang Chuanyi reminded.
Zang Chuanyi said that some elderly people walk a lot every day in order to get the number of steps. “This will keep the muscles in a contracted state for a long time, which is not good for the joints. You must know that the muscles also need to rest. People who love to exercise, must pay attention to preparing for the muscles before exercising. In addition, those who like swimming People must first test whether the water temperature is appropriate, otherwise cramps in the water may cause life-threatening. In addition, keep warm during winter exercise.”
” Generally speaking, an occasional short leg cramp will not cause any adverse consequences. If the repetitive convulsions last too long, causing leg soreness and uncomfortable, it is more serious. Self-stretching or massage or hot compresses If it is relieved, it is necessary to go to the hospital for examination.” Zang Chuanyi said. (Intern reporter Dai Xiaopei)
Summer is here, and the temperature rises day by day, we start to sweat, especially fat people, sweating at every turn. Many people say that sweating is a good thing and it can detoxify, and some people say that sweating is a manifestation of “virtual”. How do you understand this problem that everyone encounters?
Chinese medicine believes that sweat is the fluid of the heart, and the body fluid, with the promotion of Yang Qi and the steaming of Yang Qi, comes out of the body to produce sweat. “Suwen·Another Theory of Yin and Yang” says: “Yang is added to Yin. Khan.” That’s what it means. Normal sweating is a physiological phenomenon of the human body, which is an adaptive response of humans. For example, in hot weather, over-dressing, drinking hot soup, emotional agitation, working and running, etc., the amount of sweating increases than normal, but sweating The amount is generally not too much, mostly temporary. If the influence of the above-mentioned external environmental factors is excluded, those who sweat more than normal on the head, face, neck, chest, limbs, and body are abnormal sweating, which is called “sweat syndrome.”
Here are a few examples of abnormal sweating, so that everyone can better understand:
1. Spontaneous sweating: No matter whether you are active in the morning or in the evening, or whether you are active or not, you will sweat from time to time, especially when you are active. It is not obvious after a rest.
2. Night sweats: Sweat when you are asleep, and stop sweating when you wake up. After waking up, you often find that your skin is moist and sweaty, or your sheets and clothes are sweaty.
3. Yellow sweat: The sweat produced is yellow, which can easily stain clothes, especially in the armpits. Jaundice can be seen in patients suffering from jaundice, and can also be seen in patients without obvious jaundice.
4. Sweat on the head: The sweating part is above the neck, mainly on the head and face, and sweat is often involuntary.
5. Forehead sweat: No matter the temperature is high or low, only the forehead sweats.
6. Half-body sweating: Sweating is only on one side of the body, and it is more common in patients with muscle atrophy, stroke and paraplegia. Sweating is common on the healthy side, and the non-sweating half of the body is often the site of disease.
7. Sweat on the hands and feet: Sweat on the palms and soles of the feet often.
8. Chest sweat: sweating on the chest.
9. Yin sweat: wet sweat is often present in the anterior vagina, and the inner part of the thigh is also wet in severe cases.
Sweat syndrome is an abnormal sweat excretion caused by the body’s yin and yang imbalance and abnormal opening and closing functions of the muscle surface. The cause is mostly physical weakness and cold infection, weak body after recovery from serious illness, excessive thoughts and worries, bad mood, preference for eating Spicy food, etc., when the symptoms are severe, it may disturb our daily life.
Then for abnormal sweating, we have the following suggestions:
1. Strengthen exercise, strengthen physical fitness, eat less spicy food, do not drink alcohol, increase the amount of high-protein food to increase immunity, avoid excessive thinking, maintain a happy mood, and pay attention to the combination of work and rest.
2. Bedding, planking, pajamas, etc. should be removed and washed frequently or aired, kept dry, and bathed frequently to reduce the irritation of sweat to the skin. After sweating, you should wipe off your sweat in time and change your underwear to avoid catching a cold.
3. Individuals have different physiques, and the causes of sweating are also different. You must not blindly compare them, and you should not be confined to the saying that “spontaneous sweats are yang deficiency, and night sweats are yin deficiency.” It’s good for people to administer medicine and for people to eat.
4. Hyperthyroidism, diabetes, hypoglycemia, acromegaly, pheochromocytoma and other diseases can cause secondary hyperhidrosis. See a doctor in time to treat the cause of the disease, and the effect is better.
This article is scientifically checked by Wu Yanxia, director of the Department of Geriatrics, Wuhan First Hospital.
On May 20th, the “2020 First Chinese Health New Power Enterprise Collection Event” sponsored by People’s Daily Online and People’s Health and supported by the Firestone Research Institute was officially launched in Beijing. You can scan the QR code to participate in the event registration.
The “Healthy China 2030 Planning Outline” proposes to promote the supply-side structural reform of health services, promote the transformation and upgrading of the health industry, and meet the growing health needs of the people. At present, my country has entered a critical stage of transition from “treatment-centered” to “people’s health-centered”. The emerging industries of big health show broader development prospects, and the supporting role of digital technology is becoming more prominent. In the post-epidemic era, the demand for the development of high-end medical equipment and life medicine industry, innovative drugs and related industry chains, genetic testing, vaccine research and development and other related industry chains has further increased. The development of the medical and health industry is also facing new opportunities and challenges.
In order to further promote the development of potential medical and health enterprises, provide a platform for medical and health enterprises to communicate, explore and tap new momentum and new measures for the development of China’s great health, and better meet the needs of people for a better life, People. Events.
China’s new health power companies mainly include key segments in the pharmaceutical and health industry, such as drug research and development, Internet healthcare, medical services, medical imaging, in vitro diagnostics, medical artificial intelligence, and medical big data. Especially in the field of hygiene and health after the new crown pneumonia epidemic, start-ups with independent innovation of core technology, fast development speed, and superior performance in the capital market can register for this event.
This selection will adopt the “authoritative expert + AI” selection method, based on the China Biopharmaceutical Industry Development Index as a data reference, combined with expert review and public voting, from the company’s industry reputation, development growth potential, investment value and other dimensions , Comprehensive calculation of multiple indicators. At the end of the event, the list of “Top 100 Chinese New Health Power Enterprises” will be released.
After the screening of the “Top 100 Chinese Health Power Companies”, companies will be reported on all platforms and channels on People.com·People’s Health, focusing on displaying the new achievements and new actions of China’s new health powers. It is understood that during the event, there will also be an online salon entitled “Healthy Thinking—The Thoughts of New Power Leaders”, inviting industry experts, investment institutions and business representatives to discuss the development trend of China’s big health industry and promote The incubation of high-quality projects helps new power companies seize the new opportunities in the new era of the big health field, and in the new era where opportunities and challenges coexist, help China’s new health power companies to move forward in pursuit of their dreams.