The elderly should correctly understand aging, establish a positive outlook on aging, acquire health knowledge and skills through scientific and authoritative channels, and carefully choose health care products and home medical devices. At the same time, it is necessary to continuously strengthen self-care awareness, learn self-monitoring knowledge, master self-management skills, early detection and standard treatment of diseases, which is of great significance to improve the quality of life of the elderly and reduce the burden of care on the family and society.
●Reasonable diet, balanced nutrition. Elderly people should eat regularly and quantitatively. The daily food variety should include grains, cereals, miscellaneous beans and potatoes (matching coarse and fine), animal food, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy products, and nuts, etc., control cooking oil And salt intake. It is recommended that the elderly have three meals and two o’clock. The energy distribution of three meals a day is about 30% for breakfast, about 40% for lunch, and about 30% for dinner, plus one snack or fruit in the morning and afternoon.
● Exercise moderately and proceed gradually. It is best for the elderly to choose mild to moderate sports according to their own conditions and hobbies, such as brisk walking, jogging, swimming, dancing, Tai Chi and so on. 10 to 11 in the morning and 3 to 5 in the afternoon are the best exercise time, and each exercise time is 30 to 60 minutes.
●Quit smoking early and limit alcohol consumption. The sooner you quit smoking, the better. If you drink alcohol, you should limit it, avoid drinking strong alcohol above 45 degrees, and avoid alcohol abuse.
●Keep a good sleep. It’s best to take a lunch break for about 1 hour a day. If you have trouble falling asleep for a long time or have severe snoring and apnea, you should seek medical attention in time.
●Regular self-monitoring of blood pressure. You should rest for 5 minutes before the test to avoid emotional agitation, fatigue, smoking, and holding back your urine. Measure twice each time, with an interval of 1 minute, and take the average of the two times. Patients with hypertension self-test their blood pressure at least 3 times a day (1 time each in the morning, noon, and evening). Be wary of the morning peak of blood pressure to prevent myocardial infarction and stroke; at the same time, avoid low blood pressure, especially hypotension caused by improper medication.
● Regularly monitor blood sugar. Elderly people should monitor blood glucose once every 1 to 2 months, not only fasting blood glucose, but also blood glucose 2 hours after a meal. When the blood sugar of diabetic patients is stable, monitor blood sugar at least 1 to 2 times a week.
●Prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The elderly should maintain a healthy lifestyle and control risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Such as controlling excessive intake of oil and salt, exercising moderately, maintaining a good sleep, regular physical examinations, early detection of early symptoms of coronary heart disease and stroke, and timely treatment.
●Pay attention to the early symptoms of stroke and seek medical attention as soon as possible. Once the elderly are found to have sudden weakness or numbness on one side of their face or limbs, hemianopia, poor speech, dizziness with nausea, vomiting, diplopia and other symptoms, they must dial “120” and send them to a qualified hospital urgently.
●Pay attention to the decline of audiovisual functions. Avoid picking your ears casually; drink less strong tea and coffee; strictly grasp the indications for the application of ototoxic drugs (such as gentamicin, streptomycin, etc.); and strive for a relatively quiet living environment. Check your eyesight regularly, and see a doctor if your eyesight has decreased.
●Pay attention to oral health care. Adhere to gargle after meals, brush your teeth in the morning and evening, and use dental floss or toothpicks reasonably; perform oral inspections every six months to repair cavities in time; insert missing teeth in time to restore chewing function as soon as possible.
●Prevent falls. Over 90% of fractures in the elderly are caused by falls. Normally, you should maintain moderate exercise, wear appropriate glasses to improve your eyesight, avoid going out alone and crowded environments, place items indoors regularly, increase lighting, and keep the ground dry and flat.
●Prevent bone and joint diseases and prevent osteoporosis. Pay attention to keeping the knee joint warm, avoid excessive physical exercise, try to go down the stairs as little as possible, and control the weight to reduce the pressure on the joints of the lower limbs. Increase sun exposure time. Promote a balanced diet rich in calcium, low salt and appropriate amount of protein, and increase bone strength through moderate exercise such as walking or running.
●Prevent stress urinary incontinence. Pay attention to changes in behavior and lifestyle habits that increase abdominal pressure, such as standing for a long time, squatting, weight-bearing, chronic coughing, and constipation.
●Prevent the occurrence and development of Alzheimer’s disease. Most of Alzheimer’s disease starts after 65 years of age, and it mainly manifests as continuous memory, language, visual space and personality changes. Once the elderly have obvious early symptoms such as memory loss and recent forgetting, they should seek medical treatment as soon as possible to prevent or delay the occurrence and development of Alzheimer’s disease.
●Reasonable medication. It is necessary to strictly follow the doctor’s instructions for medication, master the indications and contraindications, and avoid repeated medications and multiple medications. Do not abuse antibiotics, sedative sleep drugs, anesthetics, anti-inflammatory analgesics, antiarrhythmic drugs, cardiotonic drugs, etc. Do not use “secret prescriptions”, “recipes”, “experimented prescriptions”, “new medicines”, “foreign medicines” and so on easily.
●Regular physical examination. The elderly actively participate in the census organized by the government and large hospitals, and attach great importance to the early warning signs of cancer such as abnormal lumps, intestinal bleeding, weight loss, etc. If abnormalities are found, they should go to a cancer specialist hospital for treatment. Early detection and early intervention of chronic diseases, and effective intervention measures to reduce disease risks. Keep complete medical records.
● Carry a health emergency card when you go out. Basic information such as name, home address, work unit, contact information of family members, etc. are indicated on the card, what diseases are affected, what may happen and the points of simple first aid on the spot, if necessary, indicate the request to contact the vehicle, escort the hospital, etc .